Europe after the second world war
The Cold War: A long-term global conflict between communist and democratic countries, which took place in the broadest definition of time from the end of the second World War II until the collapse of communism (as an ideology and system) at the end of the 80th years, specifically within the second half of the 40th years and 50 20th cent. Raised increasing contradictions between the Allies of 2 World War I prompted the Soviet political and military expansion in Central and Southeastern Europe and the Far East.
In 1949, NATO was founded, the Soviet bloc responded by creating the Warsaw Pact (1955). Soviet plan during the Cold War was to achieve parity in strategic arms (arms race and contractual), which would allow the use superiority in conventional forces. Western states have sought to maintain technical superiority, balancing manpower and military equipment accumulated opponent. Cold War was waged at all levels of human activity, making maximum use of propaganda, the Soviet side arms with the support of the militarization of society, and international terrorism. Cold War times resulted in lower intensity conflict (Berlin blockade, the Caribbean crisis); outside Europe were also wars (the Korean War, the Vietnam War, Afghan War). Cold War Missile Crisis peaked in 1962, after it gradually occurred to detente and disarmament agreements. At the end of the 70th 20th cent. the voltage is increased again (in 1979 Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, the Reagan administration in the U.S. launched the Strategic Defense Initiative). Intolerable arms, technological backwardness and militarization of society led the Soviet Union and other communist states to a virtual collapse in 1989. In December 1989, announced by President Bush (American politician. During the 2nd World War he served in the Navy as a pilot. Since 1966 a member of the House of Commons, 1971 special U.S. ambassador to the UN 1974 Committee member of the Republican Party for the resignation of R. Nixon. In 1980 Vice President, 1989-1993 President. struggling with internal problems of the U.S., esp financial deficit. negotiate with Gorbachev and the disintegration of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. gained recognition resolute foreign policy actions-intervention in Panama 1989-1990 and participation in the Gulf War against Iraq in 1991) Gorbachev (Soviet and Russian politician, in the years 1985-1991 General Secretary of the CPSU, launched the "reform from above", which has become the watchword of perestroika and glasnost. gained popularity in foreign policy, he inadvertently initiated a process of disintegration and collapse of the Soviet empire. closed the numerous agreements with the U.S. to reduce arms, pushed through the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan in 1988, agreed to re-unification of Germany 1990. was unsuccessful in internal politics, an attempt to revive the economy failed and exceptional authority over the abroad - clear support George Bush and Margaret Thatcher - his position neuhájil. In 1991, the first and only president of the USSR. Srpnový communist coup in 1991, in which he played the role still unclear, meant his political downfall and subsequent disintegration of the USSR. candidate in the 1996 presidential elections in Russia. Nobel Peace Prize in 1990.) during a meeting in Malta cold war over.
W. Churchill's speech in Fulton (USA) 1946: 5th 3rd 1946 speech in Fulton Churchill openly pointed to the insurmountable contradictions in the former coalition and called for unified action against zvětšujícímu the influence of the USSR. In his speech, as well as the first to use the phrase - iron curtain - a term denoting the border between the states of the Soviet bloc and the democratic states of Europe, the Iron Curtain was a symbol of sealing and isolation of Eastern Europe.
The transition to peace economy did not go smoothly and often accompanied him political Depression - Britain, France, Italy. At the end of 1947, the social and ideological offensive of Western European Communist Parties broken. This paved the way for the consolidation of Western European countries through economic assistance, which they began providing the U.S..
The first observable expression of a policy of interventionism in U.S. political affairs of Europe was called the Truman Doctrine. In a special message before the U.S. Congress, put forward by the 12th March 1947, President H. Truman justified the request for assistance to Greece and Turkey in the amount of $ 400 million. The cause of this loan was first situation in the UK, as its Foreign Minister Bevin told the U.S. that only forced to stop aid to Greece and Turkey, and also the fact that these two states were threatened by the Soviet Union.